Musical heritage of Abai

In the history of culture of different nations there are not so many people who, through their work, had a tremendous progressive influence both on the development of literature and on the musical art of their own and subsequent generations. Such an outstanding figure, in which the talents of the brilliant poet-enlightener and composer-innovator were combined, among the Kazakh people is Abai Kunanbayev (1845-1904).

The socio-economic conditions of life of the Kazakh people during the time of Abai, his struggle against darkness and ignorance, his enlightenment and, finally, his understanding of the importance of musical art in the life of the people contributed to the formation of Abai as a composer, and at the same time as a composer-innovator, who honed new sparkling facets in prevailing forms of Kazakh music of the XIX century.

The people know and love Abai, not only as an outstanding poet-enlightener, but also as a talented composer, author of wonderful songs.

To date, Soviet folklorists have collected about 45 songs of Abai, and almost each of them has melodic variations, sometimes significantly different from each other. The versatility of the poet’s musical talent is reveal in his songs. Abai appears before the people as a fiery enlightener, friend and mentor, as an advocate of friendship and brotherhood of the Kazakh and Russian peoples.

The sources that nourished the music of Abai Kunanbaev were Kazakh folk music, partly Russian.

From the works of the abaelogists it is known that Abai from childhood was fond of folk art, studied and loved folk poetry, songs, kui. He personally knew and appreciated the work of Birzhan, Ahan-Sere, Tattimbet and many other prominent folk composers. In the village where he lived, music was constantly heard, and among his close friends there were akyns, singers and instrumentalists who played a large role in the distribution of his songs among the people.

In those days, the development of musical culture was of great importance to home musical education, concerts of brass and string orchestras, performances on the stages of local theaters of Russian and Ukrainian troupes. Thanks to this, the songs, arias and romances of Russian and Western composers firmly entered into everyday life and were constantly performed at home concerts. All this had a certain impact on increasing of Abai’s interest to Russian music. Studying and translating A.S. Pushkin, M.Yu. Lermontov, I.A. Krylov, Abai showed a deep interest in the work of Russian composers – M.I. Glinki, A.L. Gurilev, A.A. Alyabyev, A.G. Rubinstein, romances, arias and songs of which he had to listen in the circle of Russian friends, possibly at public concerts in the theater and clubs.

Many of the verses of A. S. Pushkin, M. Y. Lermontov, and I. A. Krylov’s fables in Abai’s translation first became known to the Kazakh people due to the fact that the poet composed melodies for them, and they were distributed as songs.

Abai’s great merit is that he was deeply aware of the progressive importance of music as a factor that brings people together, and his song and poetic creativity successfully contributed to this great cause.

The musical heritage of Abai is the most important organic part of the pre-revolutionary song culture of the Kazakh people. An insightful description of its content was given by academician B. V. Asafiev. He wrote: “Songs of Kazakhs captivate with their emotional responsiveness, purity and clarity of feeling and deep artistic truthfulness. Listening to his songs, you can experience the thrilling joy of contact with high humanity, wisely expressed in many-sided tunes, beautiful for their sincerity and a deep sense of artistic measure and taste. The songs reflect the harsh school of life of the Kazakh people (for the music of the Kazakhs is closely intertwined with all their everyday life and historical past), and philosophical reflection on the past and experienced, and the most subtle lyrical excitement, and the joyful statement of the values of life.”

Abai’s songs not only include the best and valuable that is in the musical art of his native people, but also developed these traditions in a creatively rethought form in accordance with the spirit of his time.

In the first years of Soviet power, political worker of the Red Army Elvin Bimboes began to collect Kazakh musical folklore in Akmola district, among his first records published in 1927 were songs of Abai. And in the future, almost there is no folklorist could get past the songs of Abai in his collective work. These songs are in the records of A.V. Zataevich, A.K. Zhubanov, L.A. Hamidi, E.G. Brusilovsky and others.

Many good songs and romances to the words of Abai were created by composers Kapan Musin, Erkegali Rakhmadiev, Kenzhebek Kumysbekov, Ablakat Espaev, Nurgisa Tlendiev, Mynzhasar Mangitaev and others.

Everyone knows that the creative heritage of the great thinker, the genius of Kazakh poetry Abai Kunanbaev, has come down to our time mainly through oral folk art or through the recordings of his manuscripts. Unfortunately, the manuscript prepared for publication by the poet himself did not reach us. Abai’s songs, like the works of other folk composers, have come down to us not in musical notation, but in the performance of many different singers, who undoubtedly made a lot of changes to them. Abai did not have a special musical education, he did not know musical notation. However, Abai came to composing songs and music in a different way. Inspired by Russian democratic thought and literature, Abai laid the foundations of Kazakh realistic poetry. He expanded its theme, enriched the imagery system, created new forms, and gave it a civilian character. All this novelty introduced by Abai in poetry undoubtedly affected his composing activities. Abai’s musical gift was nurtured on a deeply folk basis. He could not pass by the centuries-old experience of Kazakh folk composers. The musical intonation of the Kazakh song is heard in all of his songs.

It is known that Abai did not have such a strong, wide voice, as, for example, Mukhit or Zharylgap. He did not compose his songs at the piano, like modern composers, and therefore could not make up for the limited possibilities of his voice with musical accompaniment. In creating songs, he could only rely on his own voice.

A handful of people, a small group of talented singers and musicians gathered around Abai, played a significant role in the spiritual development of their people. These people were distributors, propagandists of advanced ideas in art.

Abai’s poetry captivated the audience, and thanks to the music, his poems gained even greater popularity. And if at the beginning of the song Abai was sung only by his close and individual fans, then after a while his songs were sung in all corners of immense Kazakhstan.

Abai is not a fan of empty, entertaining tunes. He believes that each song should carry an ideological-artistic load. He is looking for new forms. He wants the form to fit the content.

The songs of Abai became the eternal spiritual value of the people. They entered the life of each of us. They have become truly popular. They became the soul and flesh of the Kazakh people.

In 1919, for the first time, the musicologist A.E. Bimboes shifted to the notes Abai’s song “Tatyana sozі” (“Tatyana’s Word”), written in the words of the great Russian poet A.S. Pushkin, from the novel in verses “Eugene Onegin”, which began with the words “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” (“You are sent to me by God”). The song was performed by singer Nazipa Kulzhanova, from the Akmola district of the Akmola region. However, the words of the song were not painted by notes. This melody without words was published under the title “Song of the Tatyana” in the collection “Heritage of the Peoples of Kazakhstan” (p. 83).

In 1920, for the first time, a musicologist shifted to the notes without words Abai’s song “Segiz Ayak” (“The Octave”) performed by singer Mustafa Nurbaev from Akmola.

In pre-revolutionary publications were published only individual recordings of Abai’s songs. Only in our time songs of Abai were collected, were recorded, were studied. To date, about seventy songs and variations have been recorded and published.

In the twenties A.V.Zataevich and A.E. Bimboes turned to the musical creativity of Abai . And a little later – Kazakhstan composers B.G. Erzakovich, L.A. Hamidi interested in Abai’s songs. They recorded many songs of Abai. In 1939, in order to preserve Abai’s musical heritage, a famous singer, keeper of Abai’s songs, one of Abai’s descendants, his granddaughter Mukhamedzhanova Maken, who recorded 16 songs of the poet, was invited to Alma-Ata. The recorded songs performed by M. Mukhamedzhanova are closest to the original.

These were the “first swallows” of Abai’s songs, superimposed on notes. Later, the first version of the song “Tatyana’s Letter to Onegin”, beginning with the words “Amal zhok bildіrmei” (“I can’t hide it anymore”), was shifted to the notes by famous A.V. Zataevich in Orenburg, and this song was performed by singer Sharip Medetov. The melody of the song with the name “Abai” was published without words in the ethnographic collection “Various Folk Songs”. In the same collection was placed the second version of the above song performed by the singers of Balkhia Yskulova and Zura Bayzakova, laid on notes by A.V. Zataevich.

In the same year, in Orenburg, the first version of the melody of the song of Abai “Ozgege konilim toyarsyn” (“The soul can get fed up with everything”) A.V. Zataevich shifted to the notes performed by singer Musylmankul Absalykov and without the text placed “500 Kazakh songs” in his collection. This song with notes in 1954 was published in an ethnographic collection entitled “Abai’s Musical Creativity”, published in Almaty in the translation of V. Rozhdestvensky.

The melody of Abai’s song “Kor boldy zhanym” (“My soul is humiliated”), the first version performed by Yeskendir Dayrabaev, shifting to music, the author placed without text in his collection of “1000 Kazakh songs”. In 1922, he recorded on the notes from singers Kustai Myrzabekov and Karim Kashkynbaev two versions of the song “Segiz Ayak” (“The Octave”) in Orenburg and without lyrics placed in the collection “Songs of different nations”.

In 1922 in Orenburg A.V. Zataevich shifted on the notes the melody of the song “Kozimnin karasy” (“Black of my eye”). Performed by the singer Sergazy Tamteev, this melody was written under the name “Kashyktyk” (“Love”) in “Songs of different nations”.

According to our assumptions, from 1919 to 1922, the melody of songs Abai mostly appeared in prints on notes without texts. This indicates an early spread of Abai’s songs among the people and his song creativity was gradually becoming a public property.

The second period begins from 1930. In subsequent years, the composer, art critic A.V. Zataevich continued his research path. In 1930, in Moscow, on the advice of the writer Sabit Mukanov, the fourth version of Abai’s song “Tatyana sozі” (“Tatyana’s Word”) was put on sheet music, which began with the words “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” (“You are sent to me by God”). This song without lyrics was published in the collection “Songs of Kazakh peoples” under the title “Abai Kunanbaevtyn Tatyanaga zhazgan haty” (“Letter from Abai Tatyana”).

Famous art critic, composer B.G. Erzakovich is the third collector of the full composition of the melody of Abai’s songs. He is the author of the ethnographic collection “Aittym salem, Kalamkas”. Many of the tunes were recorded from the performers by the compiler of the collection. He began his work in 1934 in Almaty with transposition of the song “Segiz Ayak” (the third version performed by singer Temirbolat Argynbaev). And the fifth version of this song was shifted to notes in 1939 performed by singer Kuan Lekerova. Both versions of this song are included in this collection.

The melodies of the songs “Aittym salem, Kalamkas” – (“I send hello, Kalamkas”) and “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” – (“Tatyana’s letter”) were also put on notes by B. Erzakovich (performers – the above-mentioned singers). The melody of Abai’s song “Ata-Anaga koz kuanysh” – (“Father and Mother of Delight”) was also transferred to notes by B. Erzakovich and printed in an ethnographic collection.

Abai’s romance “Men kordim uzyn kaiyn kulaganyn” (“I saw a birch, it broke”), full of philosophical meaning, first became the property of the cultural heritage of the people thanks to the great writer Mukhtar Auezov.

Studying and analyzing the song heritage of Abai, we can say with confidence that art historians, composers A. Bimboes, A. Zataevich and B. Erzakovich made an invaluable contribution to the development and further prosperity of the cultural heritage of the Kazakh people.

A.V. Zataevich shifted 6 songs to the melody notes, such as:

  1. “Segiz Ayak” – “Octave”.
  2. “Kor boldy zhanym” – “My spirit is humbled.”
  3. “Tatyananyn Oneginge zhazgan haty” – “Letter from Tatyana to Onegin.”
  4. “Tatyana sozі” – “The word of Tatyana”.
  5. “Ozgege, konilim, toyarsyn” – “The soul can be fed up with everything.”
  6. “Kozimnin karasy” – “Black of my eye”

In 1922 these songs were published in various collections.

From 1939 to 1954, B. Erzakovich recorded on the notes of 11 Abai’s songs and published in various ethnographic collections:

  1. “Zhelsіz tunde zharyk ai” – “Through windless night the glinting moon”
  2. “Segiz ayak” – “Octave”.
  3. “Aittym salem, Kalamkas” – “I send, fine-browed, hello.”
  4. “Tatyana sozі” – “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” – “The letter from Tatyana”.
  5. “Ata-anaga koz kuanysh” – “Father and mother of delight”.
  6. ” Kozimnin karasy ” – “Black of my eye”.
  7. “Surgylt tuman dym burkip” – “Fog hangs over the earth.”
  8. “Boiy bulgan” – “Bouncer, insolent”.
  9. “Men kordim uzin kaiyn kulaganyn” – “I saw a birch, it broke”.
  10. “Karga men burkit” – “Crow and the eagle”.
  11. “Suisine almadym, suimedim” – “You didn’t carry me, no, you couldn’t”

And in 1954, Abai’s song “Suisine almadym, suimedim” (“You didn’t carry me, no, you couldn’t”) B.G. Erzakovich recorded on notes performed by Mukhtar Auezov.

The third period of collecting, publishing and compiling Abai songs begins in 1933. In these years, the ranks of art historians, composers who study Abai’s songs have replenished significantly. One of them is the composer E.G.Brusilovski, who composed on the notes of Abai’s song “Bireuden Bireu Artylsa” – (“Everything will weigh justice on the scales”), “Kоr boldy janym” – (“My spirit is humbled”) performed by the world famous singer Amre Kashaubaev.

In 1934, working in the city of Semipalatinsk, being in the midst of Abai songwriters, the Kazakh composer Latif Hamidi, on the advice of Mukhtar Auezov, began work on transcribing notes and processing Abai songs. The grandson of Iskak, Abai’s brother – Arkham Kakitaiuly Iskakov makes his significant contribution to this matter. He is bringing the composer rarely performed Abai’s songs to put them on sheet music. Many Abai songs later processed and published by many contemporary composers, performed to this day, are based on the works of composer L. Hamidi from 1935 to 1939.

Performed by Arkham, the son of Kakitai, 14 songs of Abay are composed on notes by composer L. Hamidi:

  1. “Kor boldy zhanym” – (“My spirit is humbled”);
  2. “Bireuden bireu artylsa”- (“Everything will weigh justice on the scales”);
  3. “Ishim olgen, syrtym sau” – (“There is no life in my chest”);
  4. “Segiz ayak” – (“Octave”);
  5. “Sen meni ne etesin?” – (“Ah, what kind of lot awaits me?”);
  6. “Zhelsiz tuned zharyk ai” – (“Through windless night the glinting moon “);
  7. “Aittym salem, Kalamkas” – (“I send, fine-browed, hello”);
  8. “Tatiananyn Oneginge zhazgan haty” – “Amal jok kaittym bіldіrmei” (“I don’t know where to start”);
  9. “Tatiana sozi” – “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” – (“The word of Tatyana. Reply to Onegin’s letter”);
  10. “Kozimnin karasy” – (“Black of my eye”);
  11. “Surgylt tuman dym burkip” – (“Fog hangs over the earth”);
  12. “Boiy bulgan” – (“Bouncer, insolent”);
  13. “Konil kusy kuikylzhyr shartarapka” – (“Birds – songs fly in all directions”);
  14. “Olsem ornym – kara zher, syz bolmai ma?” – (“You should, dead, become clay, shouldn’t you?”);

In 1944 thanks to the search, deep and comprehensive study, processing of the musical heritage of Abai by composers L. Khamidi and A.K.Zhubanov created the real prerequisites for the birth of the opera “Abai”. This was a significant contribution of Kazakh art historians to the development of the national culture of the people.

Latif Hamidi and Arkham Kakitayuly personally knew many performers and propagandists of Abai’s songs. For example, “Karangy tunde tau kalgyp” (“Mountain Peaks”), “Karashada omir tur” (“So autumn has come for me”) were processed and shifted to notes performed by the famous singers Amre Kashaubaev and Zhusipbek Elebekov. However, the novel “Men kordim uzyn kaiyn kulaganyn” (“I saw a birch, it broke”), folded on notes in 1939 (performed by M. Auezov), was not published in a timely manner.

The famous composer Akhmet Zhubanov was also involved in the collection and study of Abai’s songs. So, in 1934, Abai’s song “Oneginnіn Tatyanaga zhazgan haty” – (“Onegin’s letter to Tatyana”) performed by Maken Turagulkyzy Mukhametzhanova, Abai’s granddaughter, he transferred to notes and included it in an ethnographic collection entitled “Abai’s Musical Creativity”, which was published in 1954.

The last period of the search among the people for the vocal works of Abai and their shifting to notes falls on 1984-1986. During these years, Abai’s granddaughter, Maken Turagulkyzy Mukhametzhanova, who lives in Almaty, was providing comprehensive information to Abai’s songs searching for tapes by art critics. Father Maken-apai Turagul, like many loyal and talented sons of the Kazakh people, was repressed without guilt. The label “enemy of the people” touched the family and relatives of Turagul, including the impact on the future fate of his daughter Maken. She was forced to leave her homeland. However, no repressions and anti-people’s policies of that time were able to erase human dignity in her soul: love for her people, their history, culture.

To a no lesser extent this was facilitated by the environment where she grew up and was brought up. From an early age, the songs of her grandfather sank deep into her soul. She knew almost everything by heart and performed with great skill. And now, after all the hardships, she met with great joy and pride the 150th anniversary of Abai.

Maken apay was not only a propagandist, but also an encyclopedia of Abai’s songwriting. In 1984, she left at the music fund of the Institute of Literature and Art. M. Auezov of the Academy of Sciences of Kazakhstan recording 20 songs of Abai on a tape in their own performance:

  1. “Bireuden bireu artylsa” – “Everything will weigh justice on the scales.”
  2. “Segiz ayak” – “Octave”.
  3. “Kor boldy zhanym” – “My spirit is humbled.”
  4. “Sen meni ne etesin?” – “Ah, what kind of lot awaits me?”
  5. “Aittym salem, Kalamkas” – “I send, fine-browed, hello.”
  6. “Tatyananyn Oneginge zhazgan haty” – “Amal jok kaittym bіldіrmei” – “I don’t know where to start.”
  7. “Oneginnіn Tatyanaga zhauap haty” – “Tangazhaiyp bul kalai hat?” – “Onegin’s response to Tatyana’s letter”.
  8. “Tatyananyn Oneginge zhazgan ekinshi haty” – “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” – “Tatyana’s word. Reply to Onegin’s letter. “
  9. “Oneginnіn Tatyanaga zhazgan ekinshi haty” – “Kyp bilemin sizge jakpas” – “Second letter of Onegin to Tatyana” – “I foresee everything: you will be offended.”
  10. “Oneginnіn olerdegі sozі” – “Zharim zhaksy kіim kіip” – “Onegin’s word before death”.
  11. “Zhark etpes kara konlim ne bolsa da” – “My soul will not blossom forever.”
  12. “Ozgege, konilim, toyarsyn” – “The soul can be fed up with everything.”
  13. “Kozimnin karasy” – “Black of my eye.”
  14. “Surgilt tuman dym burkip” – “Fog hangs over the earth.”
  15. “Karangy tunde tau kalgyp” – “Mountain peaks”.
  16. “Karashada omir tur” – “So autumn has come for me.”
  17. “Abdrakhmannyn aieli Magyshka Abai shygaryp bergen joktau” – “The mourning of Abdrakhman by his wife Magysh, written by Abai.”
  18. “Men kordіm uzyn kaiyn kulaganyn” – “I saw a birch, it broke”.
  19. “Terektіn syiy” – “Gifts of the Terek”.
  20. “Esinde bar ma zhas kunіn? ” – ” Will you forget your youth? “

From these, melodies 19 song were put on sheet music from a tape recording by art critic Kairolla Zhuzbasov performed by Maken Turagulkyzy. In 1986, all 20 songs and novels were included in the collection titled “Aittym salem, Kalamkas”.

Thus, a total of 64 melodies of different songs and romances were written by Abai. The collection and processing of songs, the propaganda and distribution of the song heritage of Abai by amateurs, performers, relatives, art historians, composers lasted from 1919 to 1986.

Due to the fact that we do not know the dates of the birth of Abai song melodies, according to the principles of chronology, we considered it necessary to establish the sequence of the birth of song melodies from the moment the lyrics were written.

Therefore, the chronological series of songs of Abai is as follows:

1888 year

  1. “Zhelsіz tunde zharyk ai” – ” Through windless night the glinting moon.”

1889 year

  1. “Bireuden bireu artylsa” – “Everything will weigh justice on the scales.”
  2. “Ishim olgen, syrtym sau” – “There is no life in my chest.”
  3. “Segiz ayak” – “Octave”.
  4. “Kor boldy zhanym” – “My spirit is humbled.”
  5. “Sen meni ne etesin?” – “Ah, what kind of lot awaits me?”
  6. “Aittym salem, Kalamkas” – “I am sending, fine-browed, hello.”
  7. “Tatyananyn Oneginge zhazgan haty” – “Amal jok kaittym bіldіrmei” – “I don’t know where to start.”
  8. “Oneginnіn Tatyanaga zhauap haty”, “Tangazhaiyp bul kalai hat?” – “Onegin’s response to Tatyana’s letter”.
  9. “Tatyana sozі” – “Tanir koskan zhar edіn sen” – “The word of Tatyana. Reply to Onegin’s letter. “
  10. “Oneginnіn Tatyanaga zhazgan haty” – “ Kyp bilemin sizge jakpas ” – “Onegin’s letter to Tatyana” – “I foresee everything: you will be offended”.
  11. “Oneginnіn olеrdеgі sozі” – “Onegin’s word before death.”
  12. “Zhark etpes kara konlim ne kylsa da” – “My soul will never blossom forever.”

1890 year.

  1. “Ozgege, konilim toyarsyn” – “The soul can be fed up with everything.”
  2. “Ata-anaga koz kuanysh” – “Father and Mother of Delight”.

1891 year.

  1. “Kozimnin karasy” – “Black of my eye.”

1892 year.

  1. “Surgilt tuman dym burkip” – “Fog hangs over the earth.”

1893 year.

  1. “Boiy bulgan” – “Bouncer, insolent.”
  2. “Karangy tunde tau kalgyp” – “Mountain peaks.”

1894 year.

  1. “Karashada omir tur” – “So autumn has come for me.”

1895 year.

  1. “ Abdrakhmannyn aieli Magyshka Abai shygaryp bergen joktau” – “The mourning of Abdrakhman by his wife Magysh, written by Abai.”

1896 year.

  1. “Konil kusy kuikylzhyr shartarapka” – “Birds – songs fly in all directions.”

1898 year.

  1. “Olsem ornym-kara zher, syz bolmai ma?” – “Should not, dead, become clay.”
  2. “Men kordіm uzyn kaiyn kulaganyn” – “I saw a birch, it broke”.
  3. “Terektіn syiy” – “Gifts of the Terek”.
  4. “Karga men burkit” – “Crow and the eagle”.

1899 year

  1. “Esinde bar ma zhas kunin?” – “Will you forget your youth?”
  2. “Suisine almadym, suimedim” – “You didn’t carry me, no, you couldn’t.”

Among songs – romances, one can separately distinguish such as:

  1. “Oneginnіn Tatyanaga zhazgan haty” – “Kup bilemin sizge zhakpas” – “Onegin’s letter to Tatyana” – “I foresee everything: you will be offended.”
  2. “Oneginnіn olgendegi sozi” – “Zharym zhaksy kіim kіip” – “Onegin’s word before death”.
  3. “Zhark etpes kara konlim ne bolsa da” – “Forever my soul will not blossom”.
  4. “Ozgege konlim toyarsyn” – “The soul can be fed up with everything.”
  5. ” Abdrakhmannyn aieli Magyshka Abai shygaryp bergen joktau ” – “The mourning of Abdrakhman by his wife Magysh, written by Abai.”
  6. “ Esinde bar ma zhas kunіn??” – “Will you forget your youth?”,

entered the song heritage of Abai for the first time in the performance of Maken Turagulkyzy.

It is particular followed to note performers of his compositions such as:

Almaganbet Kapsalyamov, Amre Kashaubaev, Arkham Kakitaiuly Iskakov, Maken Turagulkyzy Mukhametzhanova, Mukhtar Auezov, Sabit Mukanov, Kali Baizhanov, Jusipbek Elebekov, Mustafa Nurbayev, Kustai Myrzabekov, Karim Kashkynbaev, Temirbolat Argynbaev, Balkiya Yskulova, Kuan Lekerov, Eskendir Dairabaiyev, Sharip Medetov, Zura Bayzakova, Nazipa Kulzhanova, Musylmankul Absalykov, Sergazy Tamtiev, Sadyk Kasimanov, Kaisa Sarmurzin, Kosenbek Baiguttinov.

In total, over 20 professionals and amateurs worked in this noble field.

In arranging Abai’s song heritage on notes, such an important role was played by such art historians, composers as:

  1. Bimboes Alvin Ernestovich (1878-1942) – musician, ethnographer, collector of Kazakh songs. In 1920, he collected more than 100 folk songs among the Kazakh population. Two songs of Abai “Segiz Ayak” – “Octave”, “Tatyana Ani” – “Tatyana’s Song” were included in the collection “Musical Ethnography”, published in 1925 in Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) edited by N.F. Findeisen.
  2. Zataevich Alexander Viktorovich (1869-1936) – composer, ethnographer, people’s artist of Kazakhstan. He included four Abai’s songs in the collection “1000 Kazakh songs”.
  3. Brusilovsky Evgeny G. (1905-1981) – composer, People’s Artist of Kazakhstan, USSR, professor. In 1947 he wrote the symphony “Lonely Oak” based on the tunes of Abai.
  4. Erzakovich Boris Grigorievich (born in 1908) – musicologist, composer, doctor of art history. Collector of melodies of songs of Abai, author of several ethnographic collections.
  5. Zhubanov Akhmet Kuanovich (1906-1968) – composer, doctor of art history, collector of the melody of Abai on sheet music, author of the opera “Abai” (1944).
  6. Hamidi Latif Abdulkhaevich (1906-1983) – composer, scientist-teacher, people’s artist of Kazakhstan, USSR. Since 1933, a collector of Kazakh folk songs and kuyev. The first composer, who composed on notes performed by descendants, including Arkham Kakitaiuly Iskakov; the author of the opera “Abai” and collections of songs by Abai, as well as M. Tulebaev, T. Matsutsin, G. Bisenova, G. Chumbalov, V. Dernov, A. Serikbaev, U. Bekenov, K. Zhuzbasov, etc. due to tireless work whose musical heritage of Abai has survived to this day.


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